# Wing-tail configuration

Example simulation of a fixed-wing configuration

The wing-tail configuration has a wing aspect ratio $AR=10$, wing area $S_{ref}=0.3$m$^2$, wing chord $c_{ref}=0.1732$m. Both the wing and the tail have a taper ratio of 1. The distance between the quarter-chord points of the wing and the tail is $l=0.56$m. A body-fixed coordinate system is placed at the wing quarter-chord point. The reference speed is $|\mathbf{V}_{ref}|=25$m/s and the reference density, pressure, and viscosity are evaluated at an altitude of $h=0$m (ISA). An unstructured mesh with 6354 panels is used. The image below shows the pressure coefficient of the wing-tail configuration at an angle of attack $\alpha=5$deg.

The lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients of the wing-tail configuration are assumed to be given by:

where $\bar{q}=\frac{qc_{ref}}{2V_{ref}}$ is the normalised pitch rate. The $C_{X}$, $C_{Z}$, and $C_{m}$ are functions of the the angle of attack $\alpha$, the normalised pitch rate $\bar{q}$ and the elevator deflection angle $\delta_{e}$. The aim is to obtain the $C_{X0}$, $C_{Z0}$, and $C_{m0}$ coefficients and the $C_{X,\alpha}$, $C_{X,\bar{q}}$ , $C_{X,\delta_{e}}$, $C_{Z,\alpha}$, $C_{Z,\bar{q}}$, $C_{Z,\delta{e}}$, $C_{m,\alpha}$, $C_{m,\bar{q}}$, and $C_{m,\delta_{e}}$ derivatives using APM.

## Obtaining the 0-coefficients

A simulation of the wing-tail configuration is performed at $\alpha=0$ rad, $p=0$ rad/s, $\delta_{e}=0$ rad. The values for the aerodynamic coefficients are recorded. They are the values of the $0$- coefficients.

## Obtaining the angle of attack and elevator deflection derivatives

As already discussed, a simulation of the wing-tail configuration is performed at $\alpha=0$rad, $p=0$ rad/s, $\delta_{e}=0$rad. The values for the aerodynamic coefficients are recorded. A second simulation of the wing-tail configuration is performed at $\alpha=0.1$ rad, $p=0$rad/s, $\delta_{e}=0$ rad. The choice of value for $\alpha$ is arbitrary. Again the aerodynamic coefficients are recorded. To obtain the $\alpha$- derivatives a simple difference is used:

where $\Delta\alpha=0.1$rad. The same method is used to obtain the $\delta_{e}$- derivatives.

## Obtaining the pitch rate derivatives

The coordinate system used for the analysis above is fixed to the wing quarter-chord point however, this point does not coincide with the centre of gravity. If one determines the $\bar{q}$- derivatives with respect to this coordinate system they will not be representative of the $\bar{q}$- derivatives with respect to the centre of gravity. To determine the position of the centre of gravity (often driven by a required static margin), the neutral point position must be found. By definition, the stick-fixed neutral point position is where:

Using the difference method described above, the value of $C_{m,\alpha}$ is obtained for two different locations of the centre of gravity. The first location is when the centre of gravity coincides with the quarter-chord point of the wing $x_{cg}=0$m and the second location is selected forward of the quarter-chord point of the wing $x_{cg}=0.05$m. The choice of value for $x_{cg}$ is arbitrary. The equation for $C_{m,\alpha}$ as a function of $x_{cg}$ is then:

The solution of the equation gives $x_{cg}=-0.0645$, for $C_{m,\alpha}=0$. This is the location of the stick-fixed neutral point, $x_{np}$, ($x_{np}$=$x_{cg}$ for $C_{m,\alpha}=0$). The centre of gravity location for a 15% static margin is then given by:

with $x_{cg}=-0.03852$m. The $\bar{q}$- derivatives can now be obtained with respect to this point. A forced sinusoidal motion is imposed on the wing-tail combination:

where $A=5$deg is the amplitude of the motion and $f=5$Hz is the frequency of the motion. The video below shows the development of the wing-tail configuration wake during the forced sinusoidal motion.

The values of $C_{m}$ with respect to $\alpha$ make a quasi-steady elliptical hysteresis. Two points exist at which the angular velocity is maximum or minimum. $C_{m,\bar{q}}$ derivative is estimated from the values of the $C_{m}$ at these points

where $k$ is the reduced frequency. The same method is used to obtain the other $\bar{q}$- derivatives. Below are the wing-tail configuration derivatives estimated by the method.

$_{0}$ | $\frac{\partial}{\partial \alpha}$ | $\frac{\partial}{\partial \bar{q}}$ | $\frac{\partial}{\partial \delta_{e}}$ | |

$C_{X}$ | -0.0114 | 0.2555 | -0.2491 | -0.0195 |

$C_{Z}$ | -0.3219 | -5.1439 | 2.7170 | -0.8377 |

$C_{m}$ | 0.0556 | -0.9575 | -20.0581 | -2.3205 |

## Files

Last updated